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How do stocks and bonds work?

Stocks and bonds are two types of securities that enable investors to participate in the growth and performance of companies and governments, respectively. Here’s how they work:

1. Stocks: When a company decides to go public, it issues stocks, which represent a share of ownership in the company. Investors can buy these stocks and become shareholders of the company. The value of stocks can fluctuate based on the performance of the company, market conditions, and other factors. Shareholders can benefit from dividend payments, which are a portion of the company’s profits.

2. Bonds: Governments and corporations issue bonds to raise money. A bond is essentially a loan, where the issuer promises to pay a fixed interest rate to the bondholder for a specified period. When an investor buys a bond, they become a lender to the issuer. At the end of the bond’s term, the issuer repays the face value of the bond to the investor. The interest rate on bonds is determined by market conditions and the creditworthiness of the issuer.

In summary, stocks and bonds are financial instruments that allow investors to invest in the performance of companies and governments. Stocks represent partial ownership, while bonds represent loans to the issuer. Both types of securities offer different risks and rewards, and investors can choose to invest in them based on their financial goals and risk tolerance.